These two chapters clearly are from the works of J. N. Andrews and "His History of the Sabbath", as well as his work in the early "Reviews", as the following material will show. In the forerunner, "Spirit of Prophecy", Volume 4, these two chapters were entitled, "The Third Angel's Message" and "The Third Message Rejected". In this edition of 1884, no credit was given to Andrews but the later edition of "The Great Controversy" does correct this but does not give all the credit that was due him. Warren Johns from the White estate acknowledge in a talk at Southern Missionary College on March 6, 1982 that Ellen White was known to have used J. N. Andrews' "History of the Sabbath", but either the church did not know or did not admit that the was the "inspiration" for much of Mrs. White's "Great Controversy". Again, no material of substance that is contained in these two chapters could not have been gotten in almost the same form from earlier materials written by J. N. Andrews.
In a study for a thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts at Washington D. C., in the Adventist Theological Seminary, Gordon Balharrie wrote on the Life of John Nevins Andrews. In this study done in 1949 on page 11 he says:
On May 19, 1851, there appeared in the Review what has proven to be his most significant contribution up to that date. It was entitled, "Thoughts on Revelation XIII, and XIV". In this presentation he pioneered the idea among Adventists that Revelation 13: 11-17, was a prophetic description of the rise and development of the United States of America.
The Thesis also makes clear that Andrews gave us much of what we believe on the Sabbath and the three angels' messages. As these two chapters prove, no visions were used or needed for the understanding we have come to have concerning these subjects. Mrs. White had no contribution to make that was not already written out either by J. N. Andrews, his brother-in-law, Uriah Smith, or Ellen's husband, James White, by the time this portion of "Great Controversy" was written. In addition to the material presented here, 56 Bible texts were used in Chapter 25, while 29 were used in Chapter 26. Eleven extensive quotations were given or taken from other sources to pad what was done in the forerunner, "Spirit of Prophecy", Volume 4. Thus again, as in the preceding works of this book, these chapters were not the work of Ellen White, but of her husband James, who took his material, as he almost always did, from the works of others.
1. It was the ark of God's testimony, the ten commandments The waiting, watching, praying ones, embraced the fourth precept of that law. Then it was that our opponents arose in the spirit of persecution, manifesting the wrath of the dragon against those who kept the commandments of God, and labored to open the door that had been shut and to shut that door which had been opened, and thus put an end to the matter. Hence the strong expressions quoted above--"He that openeth and no man shutteth, and shutteth and no man openeth. Behold I have set before thee an open door, and no man can shut it."
White, James, Life Incidents, Pages 207-208 - 1868
1. To this time apply the words of the Revelator, "The temple of God was opened in Heaven, and there was seen in his temple the ark of his testament." the fourth commandment, as it was first proclaimed: .Here was the secret of the bitter and determined opposition to the harmonious exposition of the Scriptures that that brought to view the ministration of Christ in the heavenly sanctuary. How hard men tried to close the door which God had opened, and to open the door which he had closed! But "He that openeth and no man shutteth, and shutteth and no man openeth," had declared, "Behold, I have set before thee an open door, and no man can shut it."
White, Ellen, Spirit of Prophecy, Volume 4, Pages 272-275 - 1884
1. "The temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in His temple the ark of His testament." The law of God in the sanctuary in heaven is the great original of which the precepts inscribed upon the tables of stone and recorded by Moses. In the very bosom of the Decalogue is the fourth commandment. Here was the secret of the bitter and determined opposition to the harmonious exposition of the Scriptures that revealed the ministration of Christ in the heavenly sanctuary. Men sought to close the door which God had opened, and to open the door which He had closed. But "He that openeth, and no man shutteth, and shutteth, and no man openeth," had declared: "Behold, I have set before thee an open door, and no man can shut it." Revelation 3: 7, 8
White, Ellen, Great Controversy, Pages 433-435 - 1911
2. If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark namely, the beast, his image and his mark the great red dragon is considered a representative of Pagan Rome. The dragon gave his seat, power, and great authority to the beast. That both these powers are blasphemous powers, speaking great words and blasphemies against God. That they both continue a time, times, and dividing of time, or 1260 years is the second beast of Rev. 13, called another beast, having two horns like a lamb.
White, James, Life Incidents, Pages 240-243 - 1868
2. What was represented by the beast, the image, and the mark? symbols a secondary sense, a symbol of pagan Rome "his power, and his seat, and great authority," opened his mouth in blasphemy against God to make war with the saints "Power was given unto him to continue forty and two months I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb."
White, Ellen, Great Controversy, Pages 438-439 - 1911
3. We understand these horns to denote the civil and religious power of this nation--its Republican civil power, and its Protestant ecclesiastical said the silence of the earth, are daily adding to the power and pride of this gigantic nation. (the Dublin Nation.) "That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness" "And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him and causeth the earth and them that dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed." "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof."
J. N. Andrews, Review, March 20, 1855. (Reprint 1860) - 1855
3. Its two horns represent the two leading principles of this government, Republicanism and Protestantism the Protestant principle that all have liberty to worship God according to the dictates of their own consciences which Paul gives in 2 Tim. 3: 1-5, of the popular churches of these last days that first it is "said" to them that dwell on the earth, the people of the nation, that they should make an image to the beast.
White, James, Life Incidents, Pages 244-246 - 1868
3. Here is a striking figure of the rise and growth of our own nation. And the lamb-like horns, emblems of innocence and gentleness, well represent the character of our government, as expressed in its two fundamental principles, Republicanism and Protestantism exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him.
White, Ellen, Spirit of Prophecy, Pages 277-278 - 1884
3. determined to establish a government upon the broad foundation of civil and religious liberty that "all men are created equal" and endowed with the inalienable right to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." Republicanism and Protestantism became the fundamental principles of the nation "amid the silence of the earth daily adding to its power and pride." (the Dublin Nation) "he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof."
White, Ellen, Great Controversy, Pages 440-442 - 1911
4. See Bible text in J. N. Andrews art., 2 Tim. 3: Dan. 7: 2 Thess. 2: ) Read Charles Beecher's work, "The Bible a Sufficient Creed." An image to the beast, then, must be another ecclesiastical body, clothed with power and authority to put the saints to death. This can refer to nothing else but the corrupt and fallen Protestant church Should it be objected that the world is too much enlightened to submit to such deception, or to unite in such a work of persecution, we answer that the word of God gives us this prophecy. ,,,The greater the light which men reject, the greater the power of deception and or darkness which will come upon them. Hence, we understand it (mark) is an institution of papacy, enforced by Protestantism. It is found in a weekly Sabbath, which the "man of sin" has placed in the stead of the Sabbath and should, "think to change times and laws." It is not said that he should be able to change them; but he should think to do it. But when they understandingly choose in its stead the Sabbath of the man of sin, they acknowledge him as above all that is called God.
4. See Bible text in James White's Life Incidents 2 Tim. 3: Dan. 7: 2 Thess. 2) Rev. Charles Beecher, in his sermon at the dedication of the Second Presbyterian church, Fort Wayne, Indiana, February 22, 1846, said: "thus are the ministry of the evangelical Protestant denominations, not only formed all the way up, under a tremendous pressure of merely human fear, but they live, and move, and breathe, in a state of things radically corrupt, and appealing every hour to every baser element of their nature to hush up the truth, and bow the knee to the power of apostasy. Was not this the way things went with Rome? Are we not living her life over again? And what do we see just ahead? Another General Council! A world's convention! Evangelical alliance, and universal creed." it is said that they should "think to change times and laws." "Man of Sin: "2 Thess. 2. Sunday in place of the Sabbath of the fourth commandment. ,,,The great majority of Protestants who have kept the first day of the week as the Sabbath although it is an institution of the Papacy, those who knowingly keep Sunday as an institution of the beast thus enlightening, knowing what God requires but the good of past ages have not kept the day with any such understanding of the matter.
White, James, Life Incidents, Pages 246-255 - 1868
4. See Bible text in Spirit of Prophecy, Vol. 4, 2 Tim. 3: Dan. 7: 2 Thess. 2) was to think to change times and laws, while Paul styled it the man of sin. Only by changing God's law could the papacy exalt itself above God; whoever should understandingly keep the law as thus changed would be giving supreme honor to that power by which the change was made. There are true Christians in every church, not excepting the Roman Catholic communion. The test upon this question does not come until Sunday observance is enforced by law, and the world is enlightened concerning the obligation of the true Sabbath.
White, Ellen, Spirit of Prophecy, Volume 4, Pages 270-282 - 1884
4. See Bible text in Great Controversy, 2 Tim. 3: Dan. 7: 2 Thess. 2) Charles Beecher, in a sermon in the year 1846, declared that the ministry of "the evangelical Protestant denominations" is "not only formed all the way up under a tremendous pressure of merely human fear, but they live, and move, and breathe in a state of things radically corrupt, and appealing every hour to every baser element of their nature to hush up the truth and bow the knee to the power of apostasy. Was not this the way things went with Rome? Are we not living her life over again? And what do we see just ahead? Another general council! A world's convention! Evangelical alliance, and universal creed." Sermon on "The Bible a Sufficient Creed," delivered at Fort Wayne, Indiana, Feb. 22, 1846. "He shall think to change times and law.": Daniel 7: 25. R.V. And Paul styled the same power the "man of sin," .Only by changing God's law could the papacy exalt itself above God. This cannot be the change foretold by the prophet. The change in the fourth commandment exactly fulfills the prophecy. But Christians of past generations observed the Sunday, supposing that in so doing they were keeping the Bible Sabbath; and there are now true Christians in every church, not excepting the Roman Catholic communion, who honestly believe that Sunday is the Sabbath. But when Sunday observance shall be enforced by law, and the world shall be enlightened concerning the obligation of the true Sabbath.
White, Ellen, Great Controversy, Pages 442-448 - 1911
5. The issue of this struggle cannot be a matter of doubt. This warning shows that that trouble is yet to come. Its fearful character may be learned from the thrilling and dreadful import of the angel's message. The Bible nowhere else depicts such dreadful wrath. That the law of God should thus be made a great tasting truth to draw a line between the subjects.
Andrews, J. N., Review, 1851, Reprint 1860 - 1851
5. This is the most solemn warning that the Bible contains. (p. 241). It is certain that church history presents no testimony that this message has been heard in the past. A denunciation of wrath so dreadful cannot be found in the book of God, besides this (241) By the very act of changing the Sabbath into Sunday, which Protestants allow of; and, therefore, they fondly contradict themselves, by keeping Sunday strictly, and breaking most other feasts commanded by the same church. Because by keeping Sunday, they acknowledge the Church's power to ordain feasts, Till this issue is upon the people Abridgment of Christ, Doc. Pp. 57-59 (252)
White, James, Life Incidents, Pages 241-252 - 1868
5. The most fearful threatening ever addressed to mortals is contained in the third angel's message. That must be a terrible sin which calls down the wrath of God unmingled with mercy. In the issue of the contest all Christendom will be divided into two great classes the very act of changing the Sabbath into Sunday, which Protestants allow of; Because by keeping Sunday, they acknowledge the church's power to ordain feasts, and to command them under sin. Abridgment of the Christian Doc. Pg 58.
White, Ellen, Great Controversy, Pages 446-448 - 1911